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It's Safer on Transit! Transportation Choices and Public Health

04/10/2012

From Betsy Christensen, MPH Candidate, University of Minnesota School of Public Health and TLC intern

Improving public transit and creating more walkable neighborhoods can be one of the most cost effective ways to achieve public health objectives.

Before we get into details, there are a few things you should know about me. I live in Saint Paul yet do venture across the river into Minneapolis quite regularly and I do not have a car. Saint Paul is a great place to live; 95% of my friends, however, haven’t been enlightened, which means I head across the river to enter my social network. Since I have no vehicle and have a streak of stubborn independence (read: I will never ask for a ride, ever.), I have become a regular transit rider and city biking enthusiast.


Post Marshall Ave ped-bike aug 2011, credit- Barb Thoman
Marshall Avenue, near Mississippi River bridge

Take a moment to think about all of the places you travel to in a day – go the gym for a morning workout, take your kids and/or yourself to school, work across the city, visit that favorite café for lunch to catch up with friends, stop at the grocery store, etc. Now, think about how you travel to all of your daily destinations – do you have the option of walking, biking, driving, riding the bus, riding the light rail? Do you choose your mode of transportation or does our current transportation system frequently make it seem like a car is your only option?

Transportation is a major part of our lives. Not everyone drives, not everyone bikes, and not everyone rides the bus. A balanced transportation system that accommodates all modes, all users, and all abilities benefits everybody.Forty percent of Minnesotans do not drive for various reasons – age, disability, or financial costs (source:  MN Complete Streets Toolkit). Nationwide, 60% of Americans would rather drive less and walk more, yet 73% reported they feel they currently have no choice but drive to destinations (source:  Surface Transportation Policy Partnership). 

GRAND&~1Grand Avenue, Saint Paul

Quality public transit and transit-oriented development reduce traffic crashes, improve air quality, increase daily physical activity, boost social well being, and improve access to healthcare services and healthy food options. These public health benefits are increasingly recognized as central to economically-vibrant metropolitan regions. A shift towards less driving and more transit use improves our health, but in order to make this shift we need to support policies and systems that promote the design and development of healthy, more livable communities.

Quality public transit reduces traffic crashes and improves safety
Much has been done to improve the safety of automobiles and highways, yet the desire for speed continues to have implications for our safety and health care costs. Approximately 2.5 million people are injured on our roads every year (source:  NHTSA).  Communities with high-quality transit experience 75% less per capita traffic fatality rates than those experienced by sprawling, auto-oriented communities (source:  Victoria Transport Policy Institute).

Stillwater Boulevard MaplewoodStillwater Boulevard,  Maplewood

Quality public transit improves air quality
Breathing clean air should be a right and not a privilege based on where on lives. Thirty-five million people live within 300 feet of a major roadway, increasing their risk for respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, heart disease, and death related to air pollution from traffic (source:  APHA). In Minneapolis-Saint Paul, these air pollution health impacts are disproportionately located in low-income neighborhoods.

OwnworldcolorCartoon by Andy Singer

Quality public transit increases physical activity
Most transit trips begin with a walk or bike ride. Public transit users walk about 19 minutes per day compared to only 6 minutes per day for non-transit users (source:  Werner & Evans, 2007). Community design is key – walkable, mixed use communities support healthier residents and visitors. People with safe places to walk near home are twice as likely to meet physical activity targets (source:  Victoria Transport Policy Institute). It’s much easier to be active and reach the goal of 22 minutes each day (or 150 minutes each week), when it fits easily into your daily schedule. I look forward to my commute every single day – I love hopping on my bike or walking to the bus stop.

WomanWalkerWalking to shop and reach other destinations

Quality public transit improves mental and social well being
More than half of all trips nationwide are less than 3 miles in distance, yet 72% of these trips are made by car (source: Federal Highway Administration). Biking to the café, taking a 15 minute stroll, or riding transit all result in more time in one’s neighborhood, increasing interactions between neighbors and building community cohesion (source:  APHA). Increased walkability is also associated with reduced symptoms of depression (source:  Berke, Gottlieb & Larson, 2007).  A high-quality public transit system increases access to basic needs including healthcare services, employment, educational opportunities, and healthy food options.

Fest-of-FatherswebFestival of Fathers, North Minneapolis, summer 2011

Conclusion

As a public health student and a regular bicyclist, walker and bus rider, I am aware of both the societal benefits and the personal benefits of not being wedded to a car. As an intern at Transit for Livable Communities, I have learned about the importance of advocating for a transportation system that gets everyone where they need to go in a convenient, sustainable and healthy fashion. I hope you will join the growing movement of Twin Cities residents who feel the same.

 

Metro area cities apply for Transit-Oriented Development funds

from Dave Van Hattum, Senior Policy Advocate

Following Council Chair Sue Haigh’s announcement that economic development, affordable housing, and a vibrant 21st century transit system are the top goals for the agency, the Metropolitan Council is moving forward with a strong transit-oriented development (TOD) agenda.

Early this year, the Council announced new TOD grant funding (for pre-development and development) within the Livable Communities Account. The Council also created new TOD funding (for site investigation and clean up) through the existing Tax Base Revitalization Account (TBRA). In February 2012, grant applications were submitted by 12 metro area cities, including Anoka, Apple Valley, Coon Rapids, Eden Prairie, Fridley, Hopkins, Minneapolis, Minnetonka, Ramsey Richfield, St. Louis Park and Saint Paul. These cities represent a large percentage of the eligible TOD areas, which were established based on current, or soon-to-come, high-quality transit service (see map).

LCATOD_map
Map showing areas eligible for TOD funds via the Livable Communities Account
of the Metropolitan Council

A total of nearly $23 million was proposed for projects on twelve different transit lines. Not surprisingly, demand far exceeded the $13 million in grant funding available in 2012. The Council estimates that over $62 million in Transit Oriented Development grants have been allocated through the Livable Communities program prior to 2012.

The Council also recently put out a call for proposals to help the Council create a Strategic Action Plan for TOD. The action plan would include: a review of the current state of TOD in our metro region, a comparison with peer regions, an assessment of the biggest needs of developers and local governments, recommendations for setting a TOD vision, greater clarity of measures of success and a timeline for implementing new programs and policies.

Planning for TOD is about anticipating the new market for housing, retail, and jobs. A number of factors are driving the market for housing in walkable neighborhoods with convenient transit. These factors include:

1)      the consumer preferences of Generation Y (the largest group of homebuyers) for more walkable, bikable, transit-accessible neighborhoods (see Wall Street Journal: No McMansions for Millennials)

2)      an aging and changing population (91% of net household growth will come from households consisting of married couples without children and individuals living alone.  Married couples with children, will actually drop by more than 13,000 households in the region between now and 2030. Source: Minnesota State Demographer)

3)      the desire to provide an affordable combination of housing and transportation as gas prices trend upward at a pace exceeding recent or anticipated growth in household income.

We are encouraged by this new flurry of TOD activity, but the devil remains in the details. To reach the outcome of a substantially larger share of neighborhoods with convenient transit and walkable destinations, at least three key challenges remain:

1)      securing adequate funding to expand the region’s transit system to reach more of the metro area

2)      overcoming local resistance to increased development – housing and jobs

3)      designing our cities and streets to provide greater access by walking and biking to worksites, schools, shops, recreation, and transit.

 

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